They were seven years old, lived in the same neighborhood, but went to different grade schools. Although living close to each other they had not met before running into each other on this day on the road leading up the hill to their neighborhood.
In general, persons of higher socioeconomic status are less exposed to health-threatening conditions and have more resources to buffer health threats. For instance, persons with more education have greater ability to self-monitor and manage highly effective but complicated therapies for such conditions as diabetes and HIV Goldman and Smith, Variation in this ability may involve other factors in addition to education, however.
In general, the intervening mechanisms that have been studied through which socioeconomic status affects health—such as behavior risk factors Lantz et al.
In addition, these intervening mechanisms could operate independently of socioeconomic status. Additional factors may also obscure the effects of status. For instance, recent immigrants often have lower incomes, at least initially, but enjoy health advantages for other reasons.
Working-age immigrants, particularly those with employment visas or who enter as spouses of U. Assessing the role of socioeconomic factors in group health, therefore, requires attention to health in countries of origin and to the average healthiness of the original immigrants, the diversity in health status among them, and their subsequent health trajectories over their lifetimes and those of their descendants.
In addition to these individual-level mechanisms, considerable research in the last decade argues that macrolevel socioeconomic factors affect individual health outcomes Marmot, ; Wilkinson, One form of the hypothesis is that inequality, as measured in various ways, has a negative effect on individual health outcomes, especially for those at the bottom of the social and economic hierarchy.
In this view, the cumulative stress of being at the bottom of the hierarchy eventually takes a toll in poorer health. This is an important scientific hypothesis with far-reaching implications.
However, much of the influential early work on this subject suffered from severe limitations, including inadequate conceptualization of and difficulties in separating individual from macrolevel influences. Recent work by Deaton and Paxson argues that, at least for U.
Page 59 Share Cite Suggested Citation: The National Academies Press. For both adults and children, increased respiratory and other health problems result from residing near hazardous waste sites Dolk et al.
However, the exact contribution of such environmental conditions to racial and ethnic differences in health status, and the extent to which they add to other socioeconomic effects or possibly explain them, is still unclear. Clarify the degree to which socioeconomic status accounts for racial and ethnic differences in health outcomes over the life course.
Some differences are not explained by socioeconomic status, or even run counter to the expected. Would better measures of education, or other aspects of status, provide clarification?
Would incorporating measures of earlier socioeconomic status, perhaps status prior to immigration, explain more of the differences? Is better modeling needed of presumed nonlinear relationships? What differences in health outcomes would still not be explained even if all these questions could be answered?
The possibility that the effects of socioeconomic factors are misestimated because of differential survival by race and ethnic group also requires consideration.
One complication is that dimensions of socioeconomic status are not identical in their effects on racial and ethnic health differences. Analysts need to know the most appropriate aspect of status to consider—income, wealth, education, or occupation. Health differences by race or ethnicity will look different if one or the other indicator is controlled.
Policy makers need to know which aspect of status matters most. It makes a great deal of difference to policy whether differences are largely due to income, in which case increasing the income of the poor gains greater weight from its possible Page 60 Share Cite Suggested Citation: That identical levels on the same indicators may have different implications across groups also requires attention.
Variability in the effect of socioeconomic status over the life course is an additional complication.
In late life, which aspects of status have the most influence on health? Children may also acquire from their parents habits and personal characteristics that directly affect health.
How intergenerational transmission of all these factors is patterned by race or ethnicity may be important, given the influence of early life factors on late-life health. Reciprocal causation between socioeconomic status and health is an important aspect of the lifelong effect of status, and whether it operates similarly across the life course for different racial and ethnic groups needs study.
Identify the mechanisms through which socioeconomic status produces racial and ethnic differences in health among the elderly, and identify other factors that complicate its effects. Socioeconomic status may have an effect because of its links to commonly recognized health behaviors, other psychosocial factors, multiple dimensions of access to health care, geographic residence, environmental conditions, and nativity and duration of residence, especially for Hispanics and other immigrant groups.
In what circumstances, or for which subgroups, are racial and ethnic differences robust to controls for such variables? Which controls are most important and why? If none of them adequately explain the effects of status, how does it come to modify health outcomes? This analysis will require attending not just to socioeconomic variation in disease prevalence but to variation in the disease process: The relevant mechanisms may differ at each stage.
Whether macrolevel mechanisms are important is another aspect worth studying.Oct 19, · The objectives of the Maternal, Infant, and Child Health topic area address a wide range of conditions, health behaviors, and health systems indicators that affect the health, wellness, and quality of life of women, children, and families.
ample, the quality of child care, attachment to parents, and housing year to year, and a child’s history of SES may affect health differently than current SES does. For example, current SES may affect the Societal factors could include social policies, such as ones that.
Many environmental and social factors, such as poor nutrition and poor access to health care, have been found to be associated with low socioeconomic background, e.g. low income and education, and thus with poor health and development of children [21 – 23]. Assessing the role of socioeconomic factors in group health, therefore, requires attention to health in countries of origin and to the average healthiness of the original immigrants, the diversity in health status among them, and their subsequent health trajectories over their lifetimes and those of their descendants. Maternity Care in Rural Areas in New Zealand - This essay discusses the determinants of health in New Zealand with a focus on maternity care in rural areas, mainly the rural Tai Rawhiti area and how two objectives of the New Zealand Health Strategy can have a .
Other factors responsible for low mortality rates in developed countries have been cleanliness of person and home, hygienic surroundings, pollution control, social security measures, balanced food, health consciousness, etc.
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Infant mortality is one of the essential indicators of social development including child health, mother's health and mother's education.
In fact infant mortality rate depends on different factors like environment, socioeconomic conditions, geographic location and certain demographics. Socioeconomic factors are lifestyle components and measurements of both financial viability and social standing.
They directly influence social privilege and levels of financial independence. Factors such as health status, income, environment and education are studied by sociologists in terms of how.