IT is intended primarily for numerical computing. It started out as a matrix programming language where linear algebra programming was simple.
By Michael Nielsen One day in the mids, a Moscow newspaper reporter named Solomon Shereshevsky entered the laboratory of the psychologist Alexander Luria. He began with simple tests, short strings of words and of numbers.
Shereshevsky remembered these with ease, and so Luria gradually increased the length of the strings. But no matter how long they got, Shereshevsky could recite them back.
Experiments indicated that he had no difficulty reproducing any lengthy series of words whatever, even though these had originally been presented to him a week, a month, a year, or even many years earlier.
In fact, Physics of image processing essay of these experiments designed to test his retention were performed without his being given any warning fifteen or sixteen years after the session in which he had originally recalled the words.
Yet invariably they were successful. Such stories are fascinating. Memory is fundamental to our thinking, and the notion of having a perfect memory is seductive.
At the same time, many people feel ambivalent about their own memory. This question turns out to be highly generative of good ideas, and pursuing it has led to many of the most important vision documents in the history of computing.
A memex is a device in which an individual stores all his books, records, and communications, and which is mechanized so that it may be consulted with exceeding speed and flexibility. It is an enlarged intimate supplement to his memory. In his proposal for the web, Berners-Lee describes the need for his employer the particle physics organization CERN to develop a collective institutional memory, a pool of information to develop which could grow and evolve with the organization and the projects it describes.
These are just a few of the many attempts to use computers to augment human memory.
From the memex to the web to wikis to org-mode to Project Xanadu to attempts to make a map of every thought a person thinks: In this essay we investigate personal memory systems, that is, systems designed to improve the long-term memory of a single person.
In the first part of the essay I describe my personal experience using such a system, named Anki. That is, Anki makes memory a choice, rather than a haphazard event, to be left to chance. The second part of the essay discusses personal memory systems in general.
Many people treat memory ambivalently or even disparagingly as a cognitive skill: The essay is unusual in style. Nor is it a computer systems design paper, though prototyping systems is my own main interest.
Rather, the essay is a distillation of informal, ad hoc observations and rules of thumb about how personal memory systems work.
I wanted to understand those as preparation for building systems of my own. As I collected these observations it seemed they may be of interest to others. You can reasonably think of the essay as a how-to guide aimed at helping develop virtuoso skills with personal memory systems.
I will only briefly discuss visualization techniques such as memory palaces and the method of loci. Those all need a separate treatment. But, as we shall see, there are already powerful ideas about personal memory systems based solely on the structuring and presentation of information.
How to remember almost anything: Other similar systems include Mnemosyne and SuperMemo. My limited use suggests Mnemosyne is very similar to Anki. The material is, as mentioned above, quite personal, a collection of my own observations and informal rules of thumb.
Those rules of thumb may not apply to others; indeed, I may be mistaken about how well they apply to me. Still, I believe there is value in collecting such personal experiences, even if they are anecdotal and impressionistic.
At first glance, Anki seems nothing more than a computerized flashcard program. You enter a question:Physics of Image Processing Essay.
Characteristics of Light There are a few fundamental characteristics of light that are useful to be aware of before proceeding with the discussion on how CCD's and Film can function to save a useful, meaningful image.
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Bulletproof company that guarantees customer support & lowest prices & money back. Place with timely delivery and free revisions that suit your needs! The Mathematical Hacker. By Evan Miller. November 16, (Corrections)The programming profession is blessed with a number of gifted essayists.
Today I will pick on three of my favorites — Eric Raymond, Paul Graham, and Steve Yegge — because they all seem to disagree about why (and whether) mathematics is relevant to the practicing programmer. By Michael Nielsen.
One day in the mids, a Moscow newspaper reporter named Solomon Shereshevsky entered the laboratory of the psychologist Alexander Luria.