Further a vocabulary item. Lexical sense relations are therefore the relationships between meaning of words, in either their similarity or contrast in a language. It Lexical sense relations is used in lexical semantics to t describe the relationship between terms wordsas Semantics largely deals with word meaning. Thus, angry, sad, afraid and depressed, is a set of words in a lexical field that shows emotions.
Word senses and taxonomies Word senses As cultures develop, they create or learn about new categories of things, for example, tools, and they then have the need to refer to these new things.
Where might the words for the new categories come from? We have seen that words — common nouns — are associated with categories of things. I will refer to those categories that make up the meanings of words as semantic categories.
As already noted, people also have plenty of categories that have no words associated with them. In fact which categories have labels varies from person to person and from language to language, as we will see soon.
How words change What happens when there is a new category that we need a word for? More often the meaning of an existing word is extended to include the new category.
When meaning is extended, this is done on the basis of some kind of relationship between the old meaning and the new. I will refer to this as a conceptual relation.
The general situation involved in extending the meaning of a word, semantic extensionis shown in the figure below. Now they discover tigers and leopards. Each of these new categories gets its own noun, but in becoming familiar with these new animals, the Lexies see their similarities with domestic cats and develop a new category that encompasses all three categories of animals.
How do they refer to this new category, that is, to the more general category of cats, what zoologists refer to as members of the family Felidae?
One possibility, which is the one used by many English speakers, is to refer to this category using the same word that is used for its most familiar sub-category, that is, cat.
Note that the word cat now has two related meanings. I will refer to related meanings of a single word as word senses.
For a word that has more than one sense, it is up to the Hearer to figure out when the word is used which of the senses is intended by the Speaker.
Here is another English example of a word with multiple senses.
The noun chicken can refer both to a particular kind of bird an object and to a kind of meat made from this bird a mass. Notice the two senses in the following sentences. The discussion so far might make it seem that language users, or entire language communities, extend the meanings of words consciously, but this rarely happens.
Instead there seems to be a natural process by which the meanings of words change over time. As with other kinds of language change, the details of the process are not well understood. Somehow a change that starts with a small number of Speakers has to spread throughout the community and become conventional.
Generalization, specialization, and taxonomies A baby uses the word truck for cars and buses as well as trucks.
How would you describe this error? How is it like a semantic extension? He also uses the word train only for the toy train he plays with. How is this kind of error different from the first? The extension of cat to include a new sense seems reasonable because the two senses are closely related.
Every domestic cat is a member of the cat family Felidaethat is, an instance of the category general-cat. Every tiger and every leopard is also an instance of this category.
All of the properties that characterize the category general-cat, in particular, a characteristic body shape and way of moving, characterize domestic cats, tigers, and leopards. I will refer to the conceptual relation between the categories domestic-cat and general-cat as specialization-generalization.
General-cat generalizes domestic-cat; domestic-cat specializes general-cat. One way knowledge of objects is organized in long-term memory There is evidence from cognitive science that much of what we know about objects is organized in terms of the specialization-generalization relation.
This is especially true for living things, for which we seem to represent the categories in the world in taxonomies with multiple levels for different degrees of generality. Here is a possible portion of a taxonomy representing knowledge of animals. There are three points to be mentioned about the figure, and about conceptual taxonomies in general.
As indicated by the small capitals, this is meant to represent a taxonomy of concepts, potential meanings of words, not a taxonomy of words. Such a taxonomy is a psychological entity; it represents the way some person might organize their knowledge about the world, not a scientific account of what is actually in the world.ANTONYMY Antonymy is the sense relation holding between words belonging to the same morphological class and having opposite meanings.
while their synonyms “eve”. while its synonym “pants” is colloquial. “lazy” is the standard neutral word for which the colloquial “lazybones” may be substituted. A sense relation is a paradigmatic relation between words or predicates. Two major types of sense relations can be distinguished: Two major types of sense relations can be distinguished: Sense relations of inclusion, esp.
hyponymy and synonymy. For a word that has more than one sense, it is up to the Hearer to figure out when the word is used which of the senses is intended by the Speaker. Here is another English example of a word with multiple senses. Sense relation is a paradigmatic relation between words or predicates.
There are several kinds of sense relations as a result of the semantic relatedness between the form and meaning and between two meanings which will be discussed in the following.
2.) Phrases whose words no longer make sense when taken literally are called idioms. The semantic relations between words in idiomatic set phrases may be illogical to varying degrees: white elephant sale, soap opera, to see red, break a leg, small voice, loud tie, wee hours of the night.
There are a few other minor semantic relations that may pertain between words.
The first involves the distinction between a category vs. a particular type or example of that category. For example, a tiger is a type of feline, so feline is a category containing lion, tiger, etc.; color is a category containing red, green, etc, red, green are.