It includes the increasingly complex information, communication and control systems required in today's business environment. The branch of military operations that deals with the procurement, distribution, maintenance, and replacement of materiel and personnel. The management of the details of an operation.
History[ edit ] The history of production and operation systems began around B. The next major historical application of operation systems occurred in B. It was during this time that the Egyptians started using planningorganizationand control in large projects such as the construction of the pyramids.
In large cities, on the other hand, inasmuch as many people have demands to make upon each branch of industry, one trade alone, and very often even less than a whole trade, is enough to support a man: It follows, therefore, as a matter of course, that he who devotes himself to a very highly specialized line of work is bound to do it in the best possible manner.
This hierarchical organization in which people were divided into classes based on social position and wealth became known as the feudal system. Although a large part of labor was employed in agriculture, artisans contributed to economic output and formed guilds.
The guild system, operating mainly between andconsisted of two types: Although guilds were regulated as to the quality of work performed, the resulting system was rather rigid, shoemakersfor example, were prohibited from tanning hides.
They provided service to the nobility for cooking, cleaning and entertainment. Court jesters were service providers.
The medieval army could also be considered a service since they defended the nobility. The industrial revolution was facilitated by two elements: Division of labor has always been a feature from the beginning of civilizationthe extent to which the division is carried out varied considerably depending on period and location.
Compared to the Middle Ages, the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery were characterized by a greater specialization in labor, one of the characteristics of growing European cities and trade.
It was in the late eighteenth century that Eli Whitney popularized the concept of interchangeability of parts when he manufactured 10, muskets. Up to this point in the history of manufacturing, each product e.
Interchangeability of parts allowed the mass production of parts independent of the final products in which they would be used. InFrederick Winslow Taylor introduced the stopwatch method for accurately measuring the time to perform each single task of a complicated job.
He developed the scientific study of productivity and identifying how to coordinate different tasks to eliminate wasting of time and increase the quality of work. The next generation of scientific study occurred with the development of work sampling and predetermined motion time systems PMTS.
Work sampling is used to measure the random variable associated with the time of each task. PMTS allows the use of standard predetermined tables of the smallest body movements e. PMTS has gained substantial importance due to the fact that it can predict work measurements without observing the actual work.
The Gilbreths took advantage of taking motion pictures at known time intervals while operators were performing the given task. At the turn of the twentieth century, the services industries were already developed, but largely fragmented.
In the U. Services were largely local in nature except for railroads and telegraph and owned by entrepreneurs and families. Ransom Olds was the first to manufacture cars using the assembly line system, but Henry Ford developed the first auto assembly system where a car chassis was moved through the assembly line by a conveyor belt while workers added components to it until the car was completed.
During World War II, the growth of computing power led to further development of efficient manufacturing methods and the use of advanced mathematical and statistical tools. This was supported by the development of academic programs in industrial and systems engineering disciplines, as well as fields of operations research and management science as multi-disciplinary fields of problem solving.
While systems engineering concentrated on the broad characteristics of the relationships between inputs and outputs of generic systems, operations researchers concentrated on solving specific and focused problems.
The synergy of operations research and systems engineering allowed for the realization of solving large scale and complex problems in the modern era.
Recently, the development of faster and smaller computers, intelligent systemsand the World Wide Web has opened new opportunities for operations, manufacturing, production, and service systems.
The textile industry is the prototypical example of the English industrial revolution. Industrial Revolution and Productivity improving technologies historical Before the First industrial revolution work was mainly done through two systems:Operations management is a field that can, at times, be misunderstood because of its multidisciplinary nature.
However, its functions form the lynchpin of businesses the world over and success can often rest squarely on its shoulders.
Construction Management Terms and Definitions. This Glossary represents the most common Terms and Definitions used in performing the construction management process. 1 a specific task with which a person or group is charged.
a secret operation which, if it is discovered, the government will deny any knowledge of. chapter applicability, definitions, ownership and general operation of long-term care nursing facilities general provisions. sec.
applicability. According to ITIL V3, it is the incident of Highest Priority. As described in ITIL, an incident needs to be considered as a major incident if it results in a significant impact on the business continuity and needs to be addressed on an immediate basis.
An operational definition is the articulation of operationalization (or statement of procedures) used in defining the terms of a process (or set of validation tests) needed to determine the nature of an item or phenomenon (a variable, term, or object) and its properties such as duration, quantity, extension in space, chemical composition, etc.