The Union Leagues mobilized African Americans to fight for their political rights and economic security while the Ku Klux Klan used intimidation and violence to maintain the political and economic hegemony of southern whites. In Fenians, Freedmen, and Southern Whites, Mitchell Snay provides a compelling comparison of these seemingly disparate groups and illuminates the contours of nationalism during Reconstruction. By joining the Fenians with freedpeople and southern whites, Snay seeks to assert their central relevance to the dynamics of nationalism during Reconstruction and offers a highly original analysis of Reconstruction as an Age of Capital and an Age of Emancipation where categories of race, class, and gender -- as well as nationalism -- were fluid and contested.
The most widely accepted definition of violence—sometimes termed "intentional interpersonal injury"—is: The closely related terms "aggression" and "antisocial behavior" are generally applied to lesser forms of violence and include, but are not limited to, behaviors that are intended to inflict psychological harm as well as physical harm.
The public health approach to the study and prevention of violence entails a four-step process: Public health, then, is inherently a research-driven and prevention-oriented science.
This approach complements and overlaps with the narrower focus of criminology, which is primarily concerned with forms of violence that constitute crimes and with policies and practices that deter and punish perpetrators. In addition, specialized studies that address the particular dynamics and contexts of violence have proven to be important to the understanding and prevention of violence.
The most complete and accurate violencerelated datasets are those on homicide victims. In the United Statesthe overall homicide victimization rate has fluctuated during the twentieth century from fewer than two homicides perin to a high of nearly eleven homicides perin In17, individuals were murdered in the United Stateswhich translates into an average daily death toll of forty-nine people.
The worldwide homicide rate was Nevertheless, data from the s reveal that among the forty-one most developed countries, the United States has the third highest homicide rate. Because violence is not evenly distributed throughout the population, these overall homicide rates provide only a partial picture of homicide's toll.
Most notably, homicide victimization in the United States is most prevalent among youth. Inhomicide was the second leading cause of death among fifteen-to twenty-four-year-olds.
Racial disparities in homicide rates are also disturbingly high. During the second half of the twentieth century, African Americans were murdered at five to eleven times the rate of their white counterparts.
Gender differences are equally as dramatic, with males murdered at approximately ten times the rate of females. Finally, the risk of homicide is higher in urban than nonurban areas as well as within neighborhoods characterized by concentrated poverty.
Neighborhood social disorganization also increases the probability of violence victimization as well as perpetration. In comparative studies conducted in the s, the homicide victimization rates in the United States, particularly among children and adolescents, were shown to be several times higher than those in any other industrialized country.
In fact, the homicide rate for children under sixteen years old in the United States was five times higher than the corresponding homicide rate for the next twenty-five richest countries combined.
The reasons for these elevated homicide rates in the United States are not fully understood; however, probable causes include easier access to firearms, more common and severe patterns of income disparities, and higher levels of racial and ethnic diversity in conjunction with racist and xenophobic attitudes and behaviors.
The question of mechanism, or the means by which people are murdered or injured, is another critical piece of information with respect to our understanding and prevention of violence.
The examination of mechanism was particularly helpful in understanding the tremendous increase in homicide victimization rates of adolescents in the United States from toand the subsequent downturn through When the data are disaggregated by mechanism, a clear picture emerges: These trends over time can be accounted for by changes in the number and proportion of youth murdered with a firearm see Figure 1.
The changes in gun use during this period are generally attributed to three major factors: Most assaultive behavior, however, does not result in death. In more than 1. These and other data reveal that young people, African Americansand males are disproportionately victimized by nonlethal forms of violence, though these disparities are less pronounced than for homicide victimization.
Still, some reasonably sound information about adolescents who murder is available: About nine in ten are male, more than half are African American, approximately half act alone, most kill individuals who are close in age and of the same ethnic background, and most use a firearm.
The peak or modal age among homicide perpetrators occurs in the late teens and early twenties. Since the rampage shooting at Columbine High School in the spring ofmuch concern about violence at schools has been aired, and fears that such events could happen anywhere have emerged.
Contrary to these perceptions, however, the number and rate of youth-initiated school violence—both lethal and nonlethal—generally decreased, or at worst remained relatively stable, during the s. Like the homicide victimization rates, the overall juvenile homicide perpetration rate, as well as the aggregate juvenile offending rate for serious forms of violence, rose precipitously in the late s, peaked during the early to mids, and then decreased through the beginning of the twenty-first century.
School-based homicides constitute only 1 percent or fewer of all homicides committed by young people, and schools remain one of the safest environments for children and adolescents. Equally important to estimating the scope of violence perpetration among youth are efforts to identify risk factors—the characteristics that when present increase the probability that a young person will subsequently engage in violent acts.
There are five important aspects of risk factors. First, risk factors tend to be additive—the more risk factors that are present, the more elevated the risk of violence. A single risk factor generally has low predictive power.
Even among those children and adolescents with multiple risk factors, few will become violent. Second, risk factors occur, and need to be addressed, at multiple levels, including individual, family, peer groupschool, and neighborhood or community levels."Analysis Of Albion W Tourgee Letter On Ku Klux Klan Activities " Essays and Research Papers Analysis Of Albion W Tourgee Letter On Ku Klux Klan Activities restrictions.
Albion Winegar Tourgée was an American soldier, Radical Republican, lawyer, writer, politician, and diplomat.
A pioneer civil rights activist, he founded the National Citizens' Rights Association, established the historically black women's college Bennett College, and litigated for the plaintiff Homer Plessy in the famous segregation case Plessy v. Ferguson.
Historian Mark Elliott credits Tourgée with introducing . PLESSY V. FERGUSON, U.S. (). African American activists and eighteen black members of the Louisiana state legislature of organized to defeat a bill requiring racial segregation on railroads by trading votes with white Democrats on the issue of a state lottery.
(Ku Klux Klan, Albion Tourgee, the nation's leading white. In North Carolina racist paramilitaries had been organized in the White Brotherhood and the Constitutional Union Guard, but the Ku Klux Klan dominated from early onwards.
By , the KKK was a potent enough threat to affect state politics. View Essay - Ku Klux Klan_lalqatari from HIST at The University of Oklahoma. Albion W. Tourgee, Letter on Ku Klux Klan Activities () The type of actions conducted by the Ku Klux Klan is%(1).
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