Macedonia before Alexander Macedonian background Before looking at the history of the Greek city states and the kingdom of Macedonia after the time of Alexander the Great, we should first give some historical background. The previous history of the Greek city-states is fully covered elsewhere, but a look at the early history of Macedonia will help to give some understanding of the kingdom and its traditions. The Macedonian kingdom probably emerged in the early 7th century BCE. It was located in the north-east of the Greek peninsula, just north of Greece proper.
This pages contains references and a greater number of Zoroastrian names. For a simplified version of this page with no references and only a few key Zoroastrian words, please see our Overview-Simplified page.
Words in red are links. Zoroaster is the western version of the name Zarathushtra also spelt Zarathustra.
Zoroastrianism is possibly the oldest religion based on the worship of one God commonly called monotheism still practiced today. Zoroastrian scriptures are called the Avesta. The page also introduces Zoroastrianism's Central Asian connections. The Zoroastrian creed is to commit to a life based on good thoughts, good words and good deeds.
What are Zoroastrian Beliefs and Philosophy? The spiritual existence consists of two primordial spiritual entities or mainyu explained below.
At creation, the two spiritual entities were manifested in the material or physical existence as gaem being and ajyaitim not being. Hymns, or Gathaof Zarathushtra, Examples of the duality of existence, existential duality, are light and not-light darkness ; hot and not-hot cold.
In human beings, this duality is manifest as wisdom and not-wisdom ignorance and in human actions as beneficence and not-beneficent harm - actions that stem from a human spirit that is good beneficent or righteous or not-good harmful or bad.
The primordial cosmic fire was a transition between the spiritual and material existences. God, Ahura Mazdacreated them not with dust and water. Look upon the fire and behold therein how they were created". The universal laws of asha govern and bring order to the spiritual and material existences.
Human beings are constituted from both, the spiritual and material existences. Human beings also have two conscious selves ahva: Consciousness bod enables us to think, speak and act and in so doing, make conscious choices. The universal laws of Asha are available, through individual choice, to bring order and goodness to human thoughts, words and deeds.
Choice In human beings the moral and ethical opposites of good and bad, right and wrong, form dichotomies - mutually exclusive opposites that require a choice between one or the other.
These moral and ethical opposites are asha principled, honest, beneficent, ordered, lawful livingand druj unprincipled, dishonest, harmful, chaotic, unlawful living and living by the lie - deceiving and deluding others. Human beings have the ability to choose between the two, and when they do, they choose their path in life and display the nature of their spirit.
Moderation The guiding principle for many life-style choices not moral or ethical choices is moderation between the extremes of too much and too little. Applying the principle of moderation does not preclude the need to apply the tests of goodness to every choice for instance if something is helpful or harmful.
Correct choices and reasoned decisions, ratavo, are the hallmark and product of wisdom.
Good thoughts, words and deeds follow as a natural, intuitive outcome. Goodness does not come from dogma. Goodness is grounded in wisdom. The ability to reason, see differences and make choices from available options, enables us to make choices in our thoughts, words and deeds.
Age of Reason Parents and other early childhood caregivers have an important role in guiding young people in the basic choice of spirit they make before the time they reach the age of reason - fifteen years of age - and in the development of a conscience.Watch video · Alexander the Great was an ancient Macedonian ruler and one of history’s greatest military minds who—as King of Macedonia and Persia—established the largest empire the ancient world had ever.
As a follow-up to Tuesday’s post about the majority-minority public schools in Oslo, the following brief account reports the latest statistics on the cultural enrichment of schools in Austria. Vienna is the most fully enriched location, and seems to be in roughly the same situation as Oslo.
Many thanks to Hermes for the translation from pfmlures.com The rock engraved image to the right is called a fravahar or farohar (also spelt faravahar). Fravahar / farohar/is the modern word for the (united) fravashi.
Was Alexander the Great Greek or Macedonian? He was born in Pella, Macedonia, but is he considered Greek? Did nationality and ethnicity mean different things at the time of the Greeks as they do now or were they regarded the same?
The ancient Macedonians participated in the production and fostering of Thucydides's account gives a geographical overview of Macedonian possessions at the time of Alexander I's rule. Most of the literary evidence comes from later sources focusing on the campaigns of Alexander the Great rather than on Macedonia itself.
Most. The Greco-Persian Wars (also often called the Persian Wars) were a series of conflicts between the Achaemenid Empire and Greek city-states that started in BC i[›] and lasted until BC.
The collision between the fractious political world of the Greeks and the enormous empire of the Persians began when Cyrus the Great conquered the Greek-inhabited region of Ionia in BC.