Different periods of life present certain prototypic challenges and competency demands for successful functioning. Changing aspirations, time perspectives, and societal systems over the course of the life span alter how people structure, regulate, and evaluate their lives in the lifelong voyage. Psychosocial changes with age do not represent lock-step stages through which everyone must inevitably pass as part of a preordained developmental sequence. There are many pathways through life, and at any given period, people vary substantially in how successfully they manage their lives in the milieus in which they are immersed.
Puberty Upper body of a teenage boy. The structure Adolescence and family education changed to resemble an adult form.
Puberty is a period of several years in which rapid physical growth and psychological changes occur, culminating in sexual maturity. The average age of onset of puberty is at 11 for girls and 12 for boys. Hormones play an organizational role, priming the body to behave in a certain way once puberty begins,  and an active role, referring to changes in hormones during adolescence that trigger behavioral and physical changes.
This is triggered by the pituitary glandwhich secretes a surge of hormonal agents into the blood stream, initiating a chain reaction to occur. The male and female gonads are subsequently activated, which puts them into a state of rapid growth and development; the triggered gonads now commence the mass production of the necessary chemicals.
The testes primarily release testosteroneand the ovaries predominantly dispense estrogen. The production of these hormones increases gradually until sexual maturation is met. Some boys may develop gynecomastia due to an imbalance of sex hormonestissue responsiveness or obesity.
The first facial hair to appear tends to grow at the corners of the upper lip, typically between 14 and 17 years of age. This is followed by the appearance of hair on the upper part of the cheeks, and the area under the lower lip.
Facial hair is often present in late adolescence, around ages 17 and 18, but may not appear until significantly later. Early maturing boys are usually taller and stronger than their friends.
Pubescent boys often tend to have a good body image, are more confident, secure, and more independent. However, early puberty is not always positive for boys; early sexual maturation in boys can be accompanied by increased aggressiveness due to the surge of hormones that affect them.
Girls attain reproductive maturity about four years after the first physical changes of puberty appear. Adolescence is marked in red at top right.
The first places to grow are the extremities—the head, hands and feet—followed by the arms and legs, then the torso and shoulders. During puberty, bones become harder and more brittle.
At the conclusion of puberty, the ends of the long bones close during the process called epiphysis. There can be ethnic differences in these skeletal changes. For example, in the United States of America, bone density increases significantly more among black than white adolescents, which might account for decreased likelihood of black women developing osteoporosis and having fewer bone fractures there.
This process is different for females and males. Before puberty, there are nearly no sex differences in fat and muscle distribution; during puberty, boys grow muscle much faster than girls, although both sexes experience rapid muscle development.Until now, a child’s life has revolved mainly around the family.
Adolescence has the effect of a stone dropped in water, as her social circle ripples outward to include friendships with members of the same sex, the opposite sex, different social and ethnic groups, and other adults, like a . During adolescence, issues of emotional (if not physical) separation from parents arise.
While this sense of separation is a necessary step in the establishment of personal values, the transition to self-sufficiency forces an array of adjustments upon many adolescents. Adolescences and teen psychology pages.
Youth issues, teen depression, suicide, pornography, music. Parenting and raising teenagers, education. Self-efficacy beliefs of adolescents. Adolescence and Education, Volume V Self-Efficacy Beliefs of Adolescents.
Edited by Frank Pajares and Tim Urdan. A Volume in the Series Adolescence and Education Published by Information Age Publishing, Greenwich, CT. Publication Date: The Impact of Perceived Family Efficacy Beliefs on Adolescent. Education and development for parents and professionals.
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